Course Content
Front-End Web Development
Introductions to HTML which a structural design phase of website and web- application developmental process
Front-End Web Development
About Lesson

                          Introduction to HTML

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the standard language for creating web pages and web applications. It structures the content on the web and consists of a series of elements and attributes.

Basic Concepts

  1. Elements:

    • Elements are the building blocks of HTML.
    • An element usually consists of a start tag, content, and an end tag.
    • Some elements are empty and do not have closing tags.
  2. Tags:

    • Tags are used to create elements.
    • Tags are enclosed in angle brackets.
    • Most tags come in pairs, an opening tag and a closing tag.
  3. Attributes:

    • Attributes provide additional information about an element.
    • They are always included in the opening tag.
    • Common attributes include id, class, src, href, etc.

Document Structure

  1. DOCTYPE Declaration:

    • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines the document type and version of HTML.
    • It helps the browser to render the page correctly.
  2. HTML Element:

    • The root element that wraps all the content of the document.
    • Typically includes head and body sections.
  3. Head Section:

    • Contains meta-information about the document.
    • Includes elements like <title>, <meta>, <link>, and <style>.
  4. Body Section:

    • Contains the content of the document.
    • Includes elements like headings, paragraphs, links, images, lists, tables, and forms.

Common HTML Elements

  1. Headings:

    • Used to define headings in the document.
    • Ranges from <h1> (most important) to <h6> (least important).
  2. Paragraphs:

    • Used to define blocks of text.
  3. Links:

    • Used to create hyperlinks to other documents or resources.
  4. Images:

    • Used to embed images in the document.
  5. Lists:

    • Ordered lists (<ol>) and unordered lists (<ul>) are used to create lists of items.
    • Each item in the list is defined with a <li> tag.
  6. Tables:

    • Used to create tabular data.
    • Includes elements like <table>, <tr>, <td>, and <th>.
  7. Forms:

    • Used to collect user input.
    • Includes elements like <form>, <input>, <textarea>, <button>, and <select>.

Advanced Concepts

  1. Semantic HTML:

    • Using HTML5 elements to provide more meaning to the content.
    • Includes elements like <header>, <footer>, <article>, <section>, <nav>, and <aside>.
  2. Multimedia:

    • Embedding audio and video using <audio> and <video> tags.
    • Supports various formats and includes attributes for control.
  3. HTML5 APIs:

    • New features and capabilities introduced in HTML5.
    • Includes APIs for offline web applications, local storage, geolocation, and drag-and-drop functionality.
  4. Accessibility:

    • Ensuring web content is accessible to all users, including those with disabilities.
    • Using attributes like alt for images, ARIA roles, and semantic elements.
  5. Responsive Design:

    • Making web pages look good on all devices.
    • Using meta tags, flexible grids, and media queries.

Best Practices

  1. Valid HTML:

    • Ensuring the HTML code is well-formed and follows standards.
    • Using validation tools to check for errors.
  2. Consistent Structure:

    • Keeping a consistent and logical structure in the document.
    • Organizing content hierarchically with headings and sections.
  3. Descriptive Tags and Attributes:

    • Using meaningful and descriptive tags.
    • Providing clear and concise attribute values.
  4. SEO (Search Engine Optimization):

    • Using appropriate tags and attributes to improve search engine ranking.
    • Including meta descriptions, title tags, and proper heading structure.
  5. Performance:

    • Optimizing the loading time of web pages.
    • Using techniques like image compression, minification of CSS/JS, and efficient use of resources.


Understanding HTML is the foundation for web development. It is essential for creating structured, accessible, and well-optimized web pages. Mastering HTML opens the door to learning other web technologies such as CSS and JavaScript, which enhance and extend the functionality and appearance of web content.

Exercise Files
HTML Notes.pdf
Size: 1.03 MB